Superoxide dismutase - a superoxide anion is produced by a single electron reduction of an oxygen molecule and initiates the formation of a radical chain reaction. It is believed that SOD, which designs the superoxide anion into hydrogen peroxide, plays a key role in the process of antioxidant reactions. For this reason, superoxide dismutases (SODs) are a major defence system of cellular protection against superoxide. These enzymes contain redox metals in their catalytic core and convert the superoxide radical to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Three different SOD isoforms have been identified in humans:
- Mitochondrial manganese SOD (MnSOD, SOD2) whose homozygous disorder in mice causes cardiovascular disorders and death shortly after birth;
- Cytosolic zinc-copper SOD (Cu / Zn-SOD, SOD1),
- Extracellular SOD (ecSOD, SOD-3), which plays an important role in the oxidation state control process.
Ginkgo Biloba - The relevant properties of ginkgo on vitiligo are its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Ginkgo contains mainly two active groups of phytochemicals: terpene lactones and ginkgo-flavone glycosides (flavonoids). In addition to hereditary vitiligo genes, oxidative stress and autoimmune destruction are other major causative factors of vitiligo. It has been shown repeatedly that Ginkgo extract is very effective against the last two causes. Flavonic glycosides and proanthocyanidins are very effective against a wide range of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, including peroxides, which are commonly found in the skin and are known to kill melanocytes.
They clean and break these free radicals, and also increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the skin. They also protect against lipid peroxidation, which is the most common type of free radical reaction in the body. Ginkgo increases the activity of superoxide dismutase in the skin when applied topically. This increases the skin's natural defences against reactive oxygen species. For this reason, through this activity, melanocytes are spared further destruction and effectively control the spread of vitiligo. Ginkgo can affect the immune responses of melanocytes through its immunomodulatory properties. Some of the potent phytochemicals in the plant specifically target T-lymphocytes, and that is why they modulate the immune system response. This treatment saves melanocytes from antibody destruction. Ginkgo also increases blood flow to the skin, thus improving the supply of oxygen and nutrients to melanocytes. This increases the rate of recovery of attenuated melanocytes and may contribute to skin repigmentation.
Lactoferrin - Lactoperoxidase - antioxidant properties. Lactoferrin is a protein capable of binding and transporting iron. Lactoferrin may be an immunomodulatory agent and is considered to be a major non-specific resistance factor. Importantly, when lactoferrin releases its iron for absorption, it may bind the scent iron in the digestive tract. This binding ability of iron suppresses an undesirable microflora and promotes the desired microbial flora of the intestinal tract by suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The bacteriostatic activity of lactoferrin is studied for possible use as a preservative. Lactoferricin, a peptide derived from lactoferrin, exhibits protective properties against intestinal pathogens. Lactoperoxidase is an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide and exhibits antibacterial effects. Lactoperoxidase is also studied as a natural preservative in combination with other preservatives.
Directions for use:
Apply evenly to affected areas and massage gently until complete absorption. Morning and evening. May be combined with narrowband UVB (consult a physician).